HomeРазвлеченияRelated VideosMore From: World 5 List

Top 10 Countries With The Most External Debt

476 ratings | 56716 views
External debt is the sum of a countries public debt - the debt that it owes another country. Here we take a look at countries with unbelievably high numbers of external debt. Subscribe to World5List http://goo.gl/cpJSA6 Find us on... -- http://www.boredbadger.com -- http://www.facebook.com/world5list The economy is a very confusing thing, and apparently it had a bit of a hiccup in 2006 with "The Great Recession", which sounds like the world's economy wanted to break-up with us, but didn't want to have to move out of our apartment just yet so it had to "Recede" to find itself... Brazil Brazil's economy is the largest in Latin America. The country makes its money through it's agriculture and tourism. It's also home to Embraer, which is the third largest producer of civilian aircraft, right behind Airbus and Boeing. Sweden Sweden's economy is doing really well at the moment. In fact, the country currently sits as the seventh-richest country in the world, as far their GDP (gross domestic product) goes. Australia Did you know that there was more to Australia than just kangaroos, boomerangs, shrimp on the barbie and deadly animals hiding in every single corner? Italy Lo Stivaale, "The Boot". The third most populous EU state, the birthplace of the Renaissance, and home to the ruins of the once great Roman civilization. Luxembourg This country is TINY. It's land-locked, in between Belgium, Germany, and France. The whole thing is about the size of Rhode Island. France Je ne parle pas français. Je vais donc rester avec l'anglais. France is a country with a rich heritage and culture, defined by it's romantic tendencies. Japan Nippon, the small island country next to Asia. It kept up a pretty strict policy of isolation from the rest of the world until 1853 when the U.S. sent it's navy to... convice the Japanese to open up their borders, which they did. United Kingdom Hey, guess what? Brexit didn't kill the U.K... In fact, they're doing just fine. Good for them. Everyone was expecting Britain to mostly fall apart after leaving the EU, but those stubborn British buggers proved they were more than a match for what was to come. Honorable mentions: European Union: $13,050,000,000,000 Germany: $5,597,000,000,000 Switzerland: $1,533,000,000,000 Ireland: $1,960,000,000,000 Netherlands: $3,154,000,000,000 USA! USA! USA! The U.S of A. A federal republic (not a democracy, btw. We're a republic) that spans a large portion of the globe, well past the North American continent. We own islands in the Pacific and the Caribbean. We're the third most populous nation in the world, with over 324 million people.
Html code for embedding videos on your blog
Text Comments (295)
Alex Reddo (18 days ago)
‘The brexit’
tony flamingo (23 days ago)
And uk hasnt left the eu yet and what about the island the uk own and other countries on the list that own islands
tony flamingo (23 days ago)
The o in Luxembourg is silent
David Ramsey (23 days ago)
This guy's an idiot over 70% of America's debt is on to Americans lenders from America that's not external debt he needs to take more economic classes before he gives his opinion he's an idiot
UNCLE TV (1 month ago)
No India.
Erkinbek Mongolhan (1 month ago)
қарсы шыққандарыңды тозаққа салам!
Erkinbek Mongolhan (1 month ago)
ақшаларыңды еңкейіп отырып әкеліп беріңдер!!!
Erkinbek Mongolhan (1 month ago)
нехочу заработат денги, я требую все президенты мира подцеловали мой прекрасные пальцы на ноге, и мне подарили все отличные у их стране!!!!
JohnHutchinson2013 (1 month ago)
The wheels on the bus go round and round!
noname (1 month ago)
8:45 How can the UK's Debt:GDP ratio be 408%, when the debt is $2.05TR and the GDP is $2.61TR? That's 78%.
Larry Quick (1 month ago)
Josue Sanchez (1 month ago)
All wusa ever pay it back??
Super Cute (1 month ago)
meanwhile in my country, they are doing rally because of external debt which is not high than those countries mentioned above
zmajooov (2 months ago)
the attempts at jokes in this video are cringy af
ADITHYA GOLWALKAR (2 months ago)
India half trillion dollars
Jj Chen (2 months ago)
Three largest creditor nations in the world are Japan, China and Germany.
Jj Chen (2 months ago)
Japan Still Beating China on One Score: World’s Top Creditor Enda Curran May 21, 2015, 10:07 PM PDT Updated on May 22, 2015, 12:48 AM PDT Japan’s foreign investments and assets climbed to a record in 2014, keeping it in front of China and Germany as the world’s top creditor nation.
Jj Chen (2 months ago)
Hungary and Romania
Jj Chen (2 months ago)
They are in debt to Japan, China and Germany.
Jj Chen (2 months ago)
China has the most powerful military and its an international creditor. This is because when you have a strong military people owe you money. Not the other way around. Its like the mob. The mob or loan sharks. They have the hired muscles and guns. So they get other people into debt.
Yatukih001 (2 months ago)
There is a way for everyone who owes debt to someone to use our native Icelandic Independence Party to pay the debts. This party has enough money to pay all the world´s debts independently of which country has a debt. Charge the party!All of you!
Richard Burns (2 months ago)
And this is the dirty secret that they won't tell you about the so called rich prosperous nations. What do they all have in common ? Massive amounts of debt. They just borrow and borrow and borrow to give the appearance to the rest of the world that they are extremely wealthy. It's all a facade.
Mackwintosh MD1 (2 months ago)
Your list has no structure.
Grimm Fandango (3 months ago)
Why is he calling Japan a tiny country? 10/214 by population. 3/214 by GDP. 127 million people is not small. Russia has 144m people, is it small? If you rebutt that Russia is geographically large then... Iceland should be a borderline great power
shannon mikhail (3 months ago)
Don't let a low income cost you a life. Great news atlas loan firm gives 100% opportunities to give you life back. Visit [email protected]
Chamorropinoyboi (3 months ago)
We should divide the US debt amongst a US citizens living in the US and kids that are dependent and pay their ass back like wtf. The economy is out of control. I DONT WANT ANOTHER Venezuela
Rickard A (3 months ago)
debt per capita is the true measure.
thanks god russia is not on the list
Arpit Chaudhary (4 months ago)
India isn't here ..strange bt happy.
Pomo Dorino (4 months ago)
4:27 Leaning tower of Pisa has nothing to do with the Roman empire. The Roman empire was gone almost 800 years before the tower was built.
Alan G Mar (3 months ago)
Pomo Dorino The Roman empire simply had a name change. Rome still rules much of the world.
George Rady (4 months ago)
Having the world’s most powerful military (a military that is made to fight wars with one arm tied behind its back and carry out peace missions that no military is supposed to do) does take the pressure of having its MASSIVE unsustainable DEBT. It’s kind knocking on your neighbor’s door to demand your “lawnmower” back... knowing full well that IF he was in a bad mood he could pound your brains into the pavement... “I’ll just mow the grass some other time”
Muhmmad Shahbaz Shahbaz (4 months ago)
Indian 6.3 tariln dollar ha
Dịu Trịnh (4 months ago)
There is no place for China?!
Gordon Chang (4 months ago)
Gordon Chang (4 months ago)
america's military is a laughing stock. Here is a video of the Chinese military. It would take a hundred years for america to catch up
Gordon Chang (4 months ago)
gdp is whatever you want it to be.
Gordon Chang (4 months ago)
How about Hungary
Angus Suter (5 months ago)
So, who does everyone owe this debt to? With pretty well all the 1st world countries in massive debt, who did they get it from?
Gordon Chang (4 months ago)
China and whoever they post trade deficits with
azim aysraf (5 months ago)
It is because of IRS that make country get so huge of debt?
Harold Shit (6 months ago)
how about the phillipines
Snifey (6 months ago)
for you is burg pronounce but for others we pronounce it's berg pronunciation im not offended or angry maybe i'm am i'm just let this comment leave it here just to give you a little lesson
naeem someone (6 months ago)
totally wrong figures... Germany has 2.9 Trillion not 6 Trillion as this condescending trollop says.... and GDP is never proven to be correct especially in the way it is calculated and reported... mostly contrived ... totally bad reporting ... or should I say a LIE
DEADLY (6 months ago)
all countries have national bebt from at least 20 percent to 250 percent including china. So the question is to whom they owe all money to. No one can lend money to other when they are in debt them-self. So who is supposed to collect all these money.
jojo blk (7 months ago)
who are they in debt to ? rothechilds
hannes3d (7 months ago)
Lol if you say the uk has 400% external dept ..yes thats true but at the same time other countries owe the uk nearly as much ..and than you talk about the 19 Billion the us is in dept and yes i mean billion because if you are to dumb to count i will explain it one 1 ten 10 hundred 100 thousand 1000 ten-thousand 10000 hundred thousand 100.000 million 1.000.000 Milliarde now you say thats a billion but a billion is than you say thats a trillion but that would be 1.(000.000) (000.000)(000.000) Long and short scales i know but i just call you to stupid to count ..the now 21 billion us dept is not the externail dep that would mean that the uk has 2.5 billon or 90% dept not 400 and the external dept is now around 240% don't mix this stuff up .
I Don't Know (7 months ago)
America pay your fucking bills then talk about how much money you got! Kick USA from the EU!
Jamie van Vliet (7 months ago)
Really false Luxemburg is between Netherlands, Belgium and Germany, really unprofessional and stupid to forget the Netherlands and say France instead.
Abhishek Vashisth (7 months ago)
Where is india n china
ercan (8 months ago)
according to US debt clock including unfunded liabilities the real debt of america is over 112 trillions not 19 , you aren`t doing well , america is faking bilance sheets since the end of Gold Standard , You are Scammers .
ercan (8 months ago)
european nations are doomed because they dont have any ressources , if people wake up why the fuck should they give them their Products for free ?
ercan (8 months ago)
if we had a fair global economy then credibility of countries such as uk or america would be Zero .
Justyn Mychael (8 months ago)
I wish humans could afford this planet.
Ricky spanish (8 months ago)
U saud france helped us out un the war,but why did america have to come and save their ass?
Niranjan Athikavil (8 months ago)
No India.
mohan (25 days ago)
+Gulabsingh Singh Yippee you found google translator. https://youtu.be/Q7oIwtJyWi4
Gulabsingh Singh (25 days ago)
+mohan graicias senior mohan Ce parla Italiano Ce bene Chao
mohan (25 days ago)
+Gulabsingh Singh Yeah, dream on.
Gulabsingh Singh (25 days ago)
+mohan wow Im shocked How did you know that farm lanc owned by us we just bought in a very good time very cheap so that's why we hire all illegal indian fellows to work on our farm YOU are welcome too
mohan (25 days ago)
+Gulabsingh Singh Obviously you do, otherwise why are you even here talking about India, can't get India out of you...Huh, that is ok man, it happens to the best of them.
volce wagen (8 months ago)
Do about the Caribbean
KR696 राजपूत (9 months ago)
Well the joke of the video was "America has the best military in the world". Seriously dude? This powerful military is stuck in rocks of afghanistan for 16 years and couldn't defeat a few thousands of taliban.
Zulubal Andre (9 months ago)
do those graphs all indicated devaluation of the dollar
Jayesper (9 months ago)
Rare is the nation that has no debt, but where did it start? Is it just standard and only until recently got out of hand?
Domo (5 months ago)
Jayesper President Andrew Jackson was the last president who completely got our country out of debt. His motto was "I killed the bankers." Since then, Central banks took over. The issue of money should reside with the people, and until that happens, the bankers will control everything.
king lehar (9 months ago)
James Winterfield (9 months ago)
there is still time ....its not funny ...
anders andersson (10 months ago)
uk hasnt left EU yet, they havnt even started negotiations
Vaibhav Kalra (10 months ago)
and the most important question comes to my mind that these countries are in debt to whom... i mean to whom these countries owes ? 🤔🤔🤔
Sunil Ipe (5 months ago)
Some like greece to world bank, pakistan to IMF etc. They asked bail out. People do not know economics. Example Japan has huge debt but it is mostly to japanese people. Japanese people have millions with no loans. So Japan debt not important. Also Japan has huge investments abroad and that is why they are great donors.
anrdre iii (7 months ago)
wow. and how the world bank have such a lot of money?
monika sharma (7 months ago)
anrdre iii world bank
raees quereshi (9 months ago)
Vaibhav Kalra to imf, wb, gulf and Silly military expansion in foreign lands...
anrdre iii (9 months ago)
:D :D I even want to know :D :D i guess___aliens . damn
America is no 1 in debt more than it's nominal GDP!!
HitProof (4 months ago)
Destiny tran it is 105.4 % actually https://tradingeconomics.com/united-states/government-debt-to-gdp
Destiny tran (8 months ago)
Vladimir Putin, President of Russian federation . that's not correct. I think it said that it's about 14 or 24%. not over 100% of U.S. GDP
No Name (11 months ago)
We would have won the war if France didn't help us Our people was stronger ( better diet and more baby's were surviving) and had more people Britain was the strongest army at the time yes but they didn't know how to fight guerrilla warfare
Carl Amedeo (11 months ago)
Its pronounced luxemburg not booourg considering it only 22%of the gdp so...its not a big dept
Angel Flores (11 months ago)
Japan is not next to Asia😂 It is Asia
lone wanderer (11 months ago)
Who is all the debt owed to or is it just countries that owe money to other countries. If it was owed to one central bank then they must command some power with all the money owed to them.
shailendra pawar (11 months ago)
When all the countries are in debts, then woh has given them loans ??
Timothy C (11 months ago)
Basarga Loran (10 months ago)
#25, bro. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_external_debt
Alex Kim (11 months ago)
U.K. Has GDP of 2.6 trillion though? If debt is 2 trillion the debt to GDP ratio certainly wouldn't be 408%
Dr ROLFCOPTER! (2 months ago)
No he said 2 trillion external debt and that is just a portion of the total debt as most UK debt is held by UK bond holding companies like the bank of england and and many others just as with the US debt.
Nspnspker (4 months ago)
Well, turns out the UK external debt is over 8 trillion which explains the 400%. I guess he got the actual number wrong in the video.
Badge Man (7 months ago)
Yeah, you are correct. This videos numbers seem way off
nasp508 (11 months ago)
Alex Kim I believe it means they spend 4 times their GDP so they spend about 10 trillion a year
Lutz (1 year ago)
Monna lisa is italian
Rock RL (1 year ago)
But wait if all of these large countries are in so much debt then where is all the money coming from
Ariel Chimedza (4 days ago)
My thoughts exactly 🤔.
Mr Gaudy (2 months ago)
Welcome to macroeconomics
Pavel (1 year ago)
Britain is not really out of the EU.
Vodbra (1 year ago)
The reason Japan is in debt is because there making too much anime which is good!
Grimm Fandango (3 months ago)
Unless Godzilla farts
Grimm Fandango (3 months ago)
Sunil Ipe Pretty much, Japan is still a net creditor, arguably the largest. But it's close with the PRC. Both nations hoard credit. Japan is ten times smaller though, so that's something. Sorry PRC, ROK, DPRK and even some Dixie's, but Japan isn't sinking anytime soon
Sunil Ipe (5 months ago)
People do not know economics. Example Japan has huge debt but it is mostly to japanese people. Japanese people have millions with no loans. So Japan debt not important. Also Japan has huge investments abroad and that is why they are great donors.
Vodbra (1 year ago)
No matter what you will always have debt.
Jordan wang (1 year ago)
isn't china number 1 with 24 trillion?
Jordan wang (11 months ago)
https://www.nationaldebtclocks.org/debtclock/china this site calculates the national debt of china, china also has much more company debt. The debt of government owned companies and individual debt. combined is around 30 trillion USD i heard
DEATHAUR0 (11 months ago)
I can't even imagine where you pulled that number from but china has $1.56 trillion debt which is 13% of it's GDP (Lowest amongst the large economies). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_external_debt
Ja Ja (1 year ago)
fake money = fake debt, what are the banksters going to do if the entire country defaults? It's not like they borrowed us their own money...they made it out of thin air. Don't tell me they own the military and loose them on us.
youtube master (1 year ago)
Now pakistan is not in the list so why we are conidered poor and undeveloped . This economy thing gives headache
Sunil Ipe (5 months ago)
Pakistan asking bail out as it is poor. People do not know economics. Example Japan has huge debt but it is mostly to japanese people. Japanese people have millions with no loans. So Japan debt not important. Also Japan has huge investments abroad and that is why they are great donors.
jayakumar v (10 months ago)
They are less in dept because UN refused to give loan for encouraging cross border terrorism
Atharva Naik (1 year ago)
muneeb riaz because less debt doesn't equal country being rich. When you're called poor it takes into account govt spending power as well as GDP per capita which is quite low for Pakistan.
Eggdesaster (1 year ago)
GB are part off the EU and breark that at May 2019
akash chauhan (1 year ago)
Americans be like Laanisters always pays their debts 😂😂😂😂
薛陳月美 (1 year ago)
Actually the most of the us debt is on itself like the department of education
fact row (1 year ago)
fake no real news
Sinbreaker (1 year ago)
There are so many things wrong with this video... for one, $20 trillion isn't external debt... America owns most of it.
Sinbreaker (1 year ago)
I'm going to give you a powerful tool for your life. Go to Google and type "who owns most of us debt". One day you'll remember this random human on the internet giving you technique called "research".
kratos (1 year ago)
actually china owns most of the debt not the united states.
Jacob zou (1 year ago)
I have a question if all the major countries have a debt almost bigger than their economy then where does the money goes and who's profiting from it.
Sunil Ipe (5 months ago)
Example pakistan has loan from china. Greece from world bank. Both asked bail out. People do not know economics. Example Japan has huge debt but it is mostly to japanese people. Japanese people have millions with no loans. So Japan debt not important. Also Japan has huge investments abroad and that is why they are great donors.
Domo (8 months ago)
Jacob zou Take a drive around your town or city and see what are the tallest and most frequent buildings. There's your answer.
Roman Darius (1 year ago)
How can Sweden stay afloat after paying all that welfare to fake refugees?
Elena Bell (9 months ago)
Honey, refugees are not nearly as expensive as everyone seems to think, since europe has so much money to spend. Yes, it's a big number...but not in comparison to what these countries own
Romualdas Suchankas (1 year ago)
Roman Darius dude your profile picture is like mine!
AKSHAY GANESH (1 year ago)
Basarga Loran (10 months ago)
#24, bro https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_external_debt
Lepetit Roquet (1 year ago)
Okay, as a swiss citizen (and it has probably already been mentioned) I just want to correct (probably again): we don't have a debt of 1'500 billion. That would be almost three times our GDP... The federal office for statistics indicates our debt level is around 220 billions (confederation, cantons, communes and insurances all together) or around 35% of GDP. The amount of 1'500 billions seems to come from Wikipédia for some weird reason and I can't find the actual source. It's just very weird and simply doesn't make sense.
Basarga Loran (10 months ago)
Gover­nment Debt: 42.3% of GDP (~224 800 000 000$) External Debt: 261.2% of GDP (~1 738 370 000 000$) https://www.ceicdata.com/en/indicator/switzerland/external-debt
france with thier powerful navie *show ships with the dutch flag
Martin (4 months ago)
Hes american what do expect from him
Lucky Rasotra (1 year ago)
Thats why i became debt collector!😊
Ricky spanish (8 months ago)
Andrew Brophy (9 months ago)
And you are a piece of shit because no one likes you. Especially your job. Must wonder how it feels if you ever get into debt and get calls constantly.. oh wait you must be perfect because you are a collector. Fucking bitch
lone wanderer (11 months ago)
Lucky Rasotra the one job you will always have work for lol.
Kyrakia (1 year ago)
The last time another country (the US) called in all of another's debt to them (Germany) it started WWII Don't do that
Lord Slashington III (10 months ago)
Kyrakia The Weimar Republic tried my friend They tried In the end it was as if there was this cosmic force destroying all hope for Germany and pushing it towards Hitler's hands Legit Hindenburgs death The fire at parliament that was blamed on commies turning the German people against commies Wall street crash gave hitler the key to end Weimar Republic Bruh some eternal spirit was helping that guy No joke
Alexandros G. (1 year ago)
i saw those numbers and i'm asking myself why Greece is so fucked when it has only 370.000.000 euros debt (i'm from Greece)
Dimitris Oikonomou (11 months ago)
Γιατι ειναι 3 φορές το GTP μας (115 δισ) Ξέρεις ποιο ειναι το παράξενο? Οτι οταν ο Παπανδρέου εβαλε την Ελλάδα στο πρόγραμμα το GTP μας ήταν ~300 δισ το 2008, και το 2004 ήταν 380 δις. Παράξενο, ε? Θα έλεγε κανείς στημένο....
poloko collen (1 year ago)
their economies can still service the debt and that assures investors that they are willing or are able to pay and at the same time they can provide social services adequately.To tell you the truth investors do not want the countries to repay the whole debt because they benefit from interest or servicing of the debt by the country.The size and power of a country matters
Stenky (1 year ago)
Alexandros G. if you earn 100$ ans have 163$ debt it ia worse than earning 10.000$ and having 1630$ debt... you know? They have bigger debts but earn much more :/ Hope you understand!
yeah us keep war more war u join more money u spend and more money for bankers i hope trump can make america great again
yugi yoyo (1 year ago)
+PEACEKEEPERS Police sorry if offended you:-))
yugi yoyo np dude i dont mind at all it's normal i think
yugi yoyo (1 year ago)
+PEACEKEEPERS Police don't be offended i am just stating reality
yeah for sure tq
yugi yoyo (1 year ago)
+PEACEKEEPERS Police you need to work on your grammar if you want to travel to the U.S.
Daniel Tsiprun (1 year ago)
how powerful countries both milatery and economic are in debt
Radio Streetsunited (1 year ago)
Where's Russia? Even not in the list? :- (((((
Матрёшка (1 year ago)
Radio Streetsunited (1 year ago)
Thanks! I know. It was trolling ;-)
Матрёшка (1 year ago)
Russia ranks 21st in external debt https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_external_debt
Kreatos (1 year ago)
Thanks god, Turkey not in list :D
abseiduk (3 months ago)
Lol, ha ha ha, best comment
Cihat Keles (6 months ago)
ercan kilic rusya kore çin kore pakistan ve elbetteki turkiye :) hepsi dolari birakma çabasi icinde , helebi birakalim bu amerikanin 21 trilyon dolar borcu olucak 42trilyon
ercan (8 months ago)
@jon jones`barber , yea its true the debts are around 450 billion more or less but the point is our currency is printed by the "turkish" central Bank and this bank is owned by the bank of england , this is why our currency is not stable enough we are fooled by the british and their Monetary policy , Turkeys real Gdp is now Around 2,1 Trillion but we dont get this money all the wealth our ressources go into this system , if we get a gold backed currency outside the dollar and bank of england system then our debts would be around 20-25 % . All we need to do is droping the dollar and taking our goldreserves out of england and the US.
THE INDIAN OTAKU (8 months ago)
When u have Light Yagami in ur dp.... u need not to thank God
Romualdas Suchankas (1 year ago)
Kasakiwi so you turk right?
Chris Kosin (1 year ago)
Having debt and being poor keeps people working
Justyn Mychael (8 months ago)
Chris Kosin Ubuntumovement
Tom S. (1 year ago)
Obama added half of the 20 trillion in the last 8 years. Hillary would have added another 10 trillion.
Josue Sanchez (1 month ago)
I read an article that the USA debt unlike the normal popular layman debt incurred at the inception and end year of a president, by Trump is projected to add more debt in 1 term as Obama did in his two
thomp (2 months ago)
Tom S. Look! An idiot!
Simao Nunes (7 months ago)
Republican spotted
Ricky spanish (8 months ago)
ABHISHEK conqueror i love trump but we don't have to pay any debt back because other countries owe us trillions all together.
HAVANA SCP (8 months ago)
ABHISHEK conqueror n just cut 3 trill from our services to have a bigger budget for def n other things. I voted for him. But he is just the same shit.
Brandon Cantarero (1 year ago)
did anyone notice that the other day this channel didn't exist for a day?
1Hawk2Hawks (1 year ago)
you might want to add that america ows most of its money to china ;)
Hoo- Rei (1 month ago)
USA owes China 1.8 trillion of their $22 trillion overall debt.
Mr Gaudy (2 months ago)
That isn't even close to being true.
Nspnspker (4 months ago)
Not true. Number 1 is Japan. If you'd add up all EU countries, it's also about the same amount as China and Japan. https://www.businessinsider.de/us-treasury-countries-hold-the-most-us-debt-2017-1?r=UK&IR=T
Bob Malooga (4 months ago)
yes it is! do your research!
Chloe Wang (7 months ago)
Romania and Hungary
Gordon Campbell (1 year ago)
I'm a British bugger and I'm 9 and it help leavening the EU
Atharva Naik (1 year ago)
Gordon Campbell leavening?

Would you like to comment?

Join YouTube for a free account, or sign in if you are already a member.